The leading cause of death in the United States is [heart disease](https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/leading-causes-of-death.htm), as of 2016. The biggest risk factors for heart disease are [smoking and obesity](https://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/risk_factors.htm). Modern humans prize our ability to solve problems with technology. In the past 100 years we've done so impressively, from the vacuum tube to CRISPR. However, simple problems remain that evade the application of technology. Risking over-simplification: smoking can be solved by *not smoking*, and obesity can be solved by *not eating*. These problems don't take algorithms to solve, just consistency. We can't completely solve smoking, obesity or therefore heart disease because the bottleneck for these problems is not lack of tools, but ourselves.
These problems are personal to me. Going back to my great-great grandfather Martin who came on a boat from Ireland in 1880, not a single man in my patrilineal line has lived past 60 (my dad will be the first). At a recent checkup my doctor found that despite being in my 20s, overweight but non-obese, I had extremely high "bad" cholesterol and triglycerides and might need to consider medication. To get my levels under control, I needed to eat better or risk death in the long run: a harsh reality check. I still found (and find) it incredibly hard to diet. There are myriad apps available to help: from calorie counting to enumerating groceries to planning workouts. However, I slipped constantly due to lack of self-control. As of this writing, I'm down 15 pounds from my peak weight, but looking back I think "all I did was *not eat*". In order to use the apps I needed self-control, but once I had self-control I didn't need the apps.
The gap between knowing what you have to do and actually doing it should never be underestimated. That gap is responsible for the leading cause of death in the United States. Many futurists envision a world transformed by some sort of general AI that completely changes what it is to be human. I think that long before this happens the world will be completely changed by a pill or implant that strengthens the regulatory functions of the frontal lobes. In a historical instant, heart disease and crime fall off a cliff, academic achievement and entrepreneurship skyrocket. It will quickly set whoever has it apart from other humans, and it will be seen as cruel to deny it from those who cannot afford it. For now, we must bear with this bottleneck that stifles so much human flourishing.